Reference guide for plane layout of the latest tra

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Reference guide for workshop layout - lighting

new or improved light sources have made rapid progress. There are a variety of light sources, lighting equipment and control equipment that can be selected, and even any one has a specific purpose. Although their common characteristics can be provided, the values listed in some of the following lists are also very useful. Energy conservation is very important because it may account for 50% of the energy consumption in a building. The following are the elements that must be paid attention to when considering the purchase of light sources and energy conservation:

lighting standards


fixed power

stable power


in fact, many factories are lit 24 hours a day, regardless of whether the illuminated area is needed. In fact, controlling the lighting in non working areas and excessive lighting in working areas can reduce power consumption by 20%-30%. Whether automatic or manual lighting control can improve efficiency and save energy. Manual control can be effective only when the operator uses it correctly, so automatic control is becoming increasingly popular. Automatic control can formulate a week's operation procedure at one time, and can take into account the lighting in the transition period between day and night. Photocell control is widely used in outdoor lighting. They control the light according to the intensity of surrounding measurable light. Photocells can also be used indoors, especially near windows and areas where sunlight can shine. Photocell/dimmer is to increase or reduce the intensity of lighting according to the intensity of surrounding measurable light to maintain a constant lighting effect. The artificial lighting control is operated according to whether there are people in a specific area. Ultrasonic control is controlled by detecting the movement. Infrared passive control works by sensing the heat of the human body. Infrared active this is an unprecedented control to emit light. If the light is absorbed, the switch is activated. The voice switch operates by detecting the noise made by human activities

several central lighting control systems are worth considering. They are very ideal for lighting (or other applications) of large buildings and building complexes, many of which have been programmed, and several central lighting control systems use existing wires to transmit signals to sensors in fluorescent lamps. Poor lighting system maintenance wastes both money and energy. With the extension of service time, the power of bulbs in most lighting systems will decrease. Only the low-pressure sodium lamp can maintain the original power, and it is more economical to replace the bulb before failure

artificial light source

the working environment of offices and workshops is different. Different lighting technologies are required. Lighting is the main factor in arranging equipment location and production process. Ordinary workshop lighting can not meet the needs of those areas that need to judge the color. The following suggestions are provided to those who choose among various lighting devices to meet the needs of special equipment in special occasions

fluorescent lamp

fluorescent lamp has been widely used in office lighting. It is a glass lamp tube containing mercury and inert gas. The direct current between the two electrodes forms an arc, which activates the starter to produce visible light

the light color of early fluorescent lamps was not satisfactory. The progress of starter has greatly improved its color effect

fluorescent lamps have a long service life (18, 000 hours) and are more efficient than incandescent lamps. In order to make more effective use of light energy, it is necessary to establish a reflection system

at present, there are three kinds of fluorescent lamps on the market: preheating, quick start and immediate start fluorescent lamps. Quick start and immediate start fluorescent lamps are most popular because they only need to be started once

hid (high current discharge bulb)

hid bulb needs to wait for the tube wall temperature and air pressure to reach balance before starting. After starting, the lamp tube can give full play to the maximum luminous efficiency

the warm-up time of HID bulb is about 15 minutes, and the restart time is minutes. The startup of high pressure sodium lamp (HPS) is faster, but it will change with the change of voltage regulator and power supply. The effect of instantly starting HPS and metal halide bulbs is also very good

lps (low-pressure sodium lamp)

the starting time of these bulbs is similar to that of HID bulbs, and the low-pressure bulbs can be restarted immediately after being powered on

light pipe system

this relatively novel lighting system is composed of a light source and a reflector, and the light enters the light pipe through one end of the pipe. The jagged prism reflects light longitudinally along the pipe, and the mirror at the end reflects the light back. The system includes prism film and luminescence technology. This ideal lighting system transmits light along the pipe with little absorption. Its reflective ability is about 99%. Therefore, it can reach an unprecedented 20 meter long pipe length or even longer. Its advantages include: convenient maintenance and low cost. Ideal applications require separation of light and light source - high reflectivity - control the angle to make the light uniform - minimize the number of bulbs used - improve efficiency - reduce installation and replacement costs - and maximize the service life of bulbs

application fields include:

clean rooms

mass production areas


large area workplaces and stores

lighting in dangerous places

central areas

building focus

the technical term of the lighting system is: safety lighting/full spectrum electrodeless vulcanized bulb. The bulb turns 1 (4) control switch failure: 425 watts of input power into 135000 lumens of full spectrum sunlight. The light produced by the bulb does not flicker, and there is almost no infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Since there is no filament and electrode, the design life of the bulb is 60000 hours. Only one small magnetic tube needs to be replaced after 20000 hours

incandescent lamp

one of the advantages of incandescent lamp is the color of incandescent lamp light source. It can be competent for the lighting of key areas. Most people think incandescent lamps are the most common way of lighting. In fact, general office buildings and factories no longer use incandescent lamps

incandescent lamps have a relatively short service life (750 hours to 2000 hours), and the higher the wattage, the lower the efficiency

key points of operation

starting, preheating time and restarting are the three key points of selecting lamps. Generally speaking, incandescent lamps can be switched on and off at will, but fluorescent lamps need a few seconds to reach their brightest. Even some excited fluorescent lamps require a few minutes of warm-up time. HID or HID light source also needs a few minutes of warm-up time. Due to mechanical wear, hid and LPS (low pressure sodium lamp) need a few minutes of cooling time to restart after being turned off, so it is best to use specially designed bulbs or add auxiliary equipment to facilitate quick start. An auxiliary bulb can also be used to provide illumination when the HID bulb cools. Incandescent lamps or tungsten filament lamps can be activated instantly. It takes only one second to reach the normal luminous efficiency, and the restart time is the same as the initial startup time

natural light (daylight lighting)

in order to save energy, natural light lighting has been reintroduced into the lighting system of office buildings and workshops. When designing a building, we should carefully analyze the orientation, position, direction and windows in order to make full use of sunlight. However, due to the factors of windows, the increase or decrease of heat should be considered in comparison with lighting. Because sunlight is not stable for providing light and heat, using windows is a meaningful part of lighting, heating and cooling research. It also includes the design layout and proportion of indoor doors and windows

the window utilization team of Florida solar energy research center studied the effect of windows on heat and lighting. They mainly focus on the thermal effect of solar energy on buildings, the energy consumption of heating and cooling systems, the comfort of indoor human eyes, and the impact of lighting energy savings

lighting parameters

to determine the lighting standard, a special work needs to be done. People always rely on professional institutions to make various guides: for example, the lighting engineering association is the largest source of information. Their published guidelines are formulated according to the relevant data of personnel's vision, age, work requirements, and lighting standards for different tasks under different conditions:

lighting guidelines are divided into seven categories: categories A to C require specific lighting requirements at any time and place in the entire area

d to f categories require specific lighting requirements in some places in the whole area, and the lighting in other areas is maintained at the lighting level of 20fc

g type pins have extremely high requirements for work tasks, so the lighting requirements are correspondingly high. The lighting system serving this kind of work needs careful analysis and overall consideration in order to improve

Lighting Guide

category * lighting intensity unit lux (foot candle FC) lighting area

a * * () * * public areas with dark background, such as parking lots, night lighting inside and outside buildings, etc.

b * * (.)** Areas with simple directions, such as halls, corridors, etc.

c * * () * * areas with occasional work tasks, such as counting, stacking, loading and unloading, packaging and many other areas that need to be handled

d + () + general office lighting, large-scale prints, printouts and other prints with strong contrast, although it does not need to be considered in detail, it needs to meet the lighting requirements of the whole area. Lighting in other fields such as wax paper printing, packaging, processing and recycling

e + () + areas requiring careful inspection and identification of products. General lighting is also popular in office environments that require moderate contrast in reading and poor printing quality. Other subsequent processes such as post-processing and decoration

f + () + working objects with low contrast. A print that is small and difficult to read. Check and identify difficult printed materials

g ++ () + + the application field is the same as f. But the staff work longer and the task is more arduous, or the assembly line composed of many parts

** indoor and outdoor general lighting

+ working lighting

++ working lighting combined with overall and partial lighting

(source: Lighting Engineering Association)

lighting in special areas

special lighting is very necessary because the lighting requirements of various places are different. There are several areas in any factory that require special consideration for uniform, non-uniform, working or static lighting, and there are minimum standards for lighting for special tasks. The standard can be achieved by using ordinary lighting, or by combining ordinary lighting with supplementary lighting. When supplementary lighting is used, the general lighting shall reach at least 10% of the total lighting, or 20fc

Open Office (lighting) design

there are several ways of lighting for open offices. Usually, it depends on the number and height of the separation wall. Because they affect desktop photos very much, the discussion about Pu often touches on the strength and uniformity of organosilicon Ming. Pay special attention to closets and bookshelves, which will cast a huge shadow on the desktop

there are three basic ways of lighting in open office: uniform, uneven, work/background. Uniform illumination means that the main light source provides the main light of the space, which is particularly effective for tasks with low lighting requirements. Because increasing lighting intensity means increasing electricity bills. Non uniform lighting is provided to areas with different lighting requirements. This method is especially effective when the furniture location is planned in advance. The lighting intensity of the circulation area can be relatively low, while the intensity of the working area is higher

working/background lighting means that the background light is lower than the light in the working area and can be used as a supplement to the working light source. Non uniform lighting and work/background lighting can reduce the initial

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